If you are thinking of starting a company (or are a shareholder), it is important that you know the difference between a company’s Articles of Association (“Articles”) and a Shareholders’ Agreement. Every company registered in England and Wales must have Articles; a company simply cannot be formed without them. The Articles set out the company’s governance structure and basically operate as a rule book. If you are a shareholder, it is within your interests to ensure that the Articles are appropriate to the company and how it operates.Read More »
Once a company has set up and is operating an EMI share scheme, more often than not, those at the company managing the scheme only diarise for the dates on which certain employees’ options will vest and be capable of exercise. Unfortunately, there is an additional date which needs to be added to the diary – this is the EMI Annual Reporting Deadline.Read More »
This is an easily-adaptable letter to a venue which you can use to refuse Covid-19 vaccinations as a condition of entry to venues in the United Kingdom. It is well-established at both common law and statute that no-one can be forced to take medical treatment in the UK and anyone doing so, or attempting to do so, exposes themselves to criminal and / or civil liability.Read More »
On 4 January 2022, the National Security and Investment Act 2021 (“NSIA”) came into force. The NSIA replaces the existing provisions of the Enterprise Act 2002, provisions that previously dealt with possible public interest issues arising from mergers. The rules of the NSIA apply to any qualifying acquisition (detailed below) of an entity (e.g., a company) or any qualifying acquisition of assets (e.g., intellectual property or land). The NSIA may also capture transactions beyond that of standard mergers and acquisitions such as minority investments, where qualifying interests or rights are acquired.Read More »
A consultation to reform the Human Rights Act 1998.
This consultation closes at 11:59pm on 8 March 2022
Questionnaire (See page 111 of the consultation paper)Read More »
The territory of the internet is far from being a lawless land. Earlier, the regulations were perplexing and were in their infancy. In today’s fast-paced world, the rights and duties in such a virtual environment are transparent and incredibly well defined. As it is a universe in which the exchange of information is constant and very rich, ranging from Former US President Barack Obama’s Hope Poster to the famous Indian music director Ilayaraja, one of the most sensitive and controversial issues in this regard is copyright infringement. But what is copyright?Read More »
This is an easily-adaptable letter to an employer (e.g., the NHS) which you can use to refuse Covid-19 vaccinations as a condition of employment, studentship or placement. It is well-established at both common law and statute that no-one can be forced to take medical treatment in the UK and anyone doing so, or attempting to do so, exposes themselves to criminal and / or civil liability.
Detailed guidance notes also clearly guide you through adapting the letter to suit your needs. It includes potential space for appendices in case you have supporting documents you would like to include. These could be a statutory declaration, a letter of exemption from Covid-19 vaccination from a doctor, your medical history or any other relevant medical information.
An in-depth analysis of the relevant laws and legal principles has been conducted, as well as detailed exploration of UK Government regulations.Read More »
Investment in UK university spin outs reached £1.11b in 2020, which is a significant increase from the £577m raised in 2011. Although the number of deals has decreased since its peak in 2017, university spin outs remain a popular and important method for UK universities to commercialise their knowledge and research.
This blog outlines some of the key aspects that founders should consider when negotiating university spin outs with the universities themselves.Read More »
What are employee share option plans and why would you implement them?
Employee share options provide employees with rights to acquire shares in a company (usually the employing company or a member of the same group) at a pre-agreed fixed price (often called the exercise price or strike price) in the future. Normally, the exercise price is the market value of the shares at the time the option is granted.
For example, an employee could be granted an option to buy 100 shares at a price of £1.00 per share.Read More »
What is Disclosure?
Disclosure is a provision of the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (“CPR”), a term given to the process of offering documents within your control and are material to the issues in dispute. The purpose of disclosure is to make available evidence that can either support or undermine the respective parties’ cases.Read More »